3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) : A collaboration agreement that was established in December 1998 by standards bodies in Europe, Japan, China, North America and South Korea. The scope of 3GPP was to create a globally applicable 3G mobile-phone system that would fit into the International Telecommunications Union’s International Mobile Telecommunications-2000, or IMT-2000, project. 3GPP specifications are based on evolved GSM specifications, now generally known as the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications service) system.
- 802.16d : Strictly speaking, 802.16d has never existed as a standard. The standard is correctly called 802.16-2004. However, since this standard is frequently called 802.16d, that usage also takes place in this article to assist readability.
- 802.16e : Just as 802.16d has never existed, a standard called 802.16e hasn’t either. It’s an amendment to 802.16-2004, so is not a standard in its own right. It’s properly referred to as 802.16e-2005.
- 802.11 : IEEE standards for wireless LANs with specs for 1-2, 11 and 24 Mbps with access points typically covering 50-100 meters each.
Broadband access : Many companies are closely examining WiMAX for “last mile” connectivity at high data rates. The resulting competition may bring lower pricing for both home and business customers, or bring broadband access to places where it has been economically unavailable. Prior to WiMax, many operators have been using proprietary fixed wireless technologies for broadband services.
Base Station : In a cellular communication system, a base station could be considered a central mode of transmission and reception for the network. Currently, this station includes an ominidirectional antenna or several sectoral antennas.
Frequency : Rate of signal oscillation in hertz, meaning the number of times the wave form repeats itself in second (measured in Hertz (Hz) where one Hz is one cycle per second). The frequencies band assigned to GSM is 900-1800 MHz. For 3G the band assigned are between 1885-2025 MHz and 2110-2200 MHz.
IEEE (The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) : is an international non-profit, professional organization for the advancement of technology related to electricity. IEEE’s Constitution defines the purposes of the organization as “scientific and educational, directed toward the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical, electronics, communications and computer engineering, as well as computer science, the allied branches of engineering and the related arts and sciences.” Visit the IEEE.org for more information about The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
WiBro (Wireless Broadband) : A wireless broadband Internet technology being developed by Korean telecommunications companies. In February 2002, the Korean government allocated 100MHz of electromagnetic spectrum in the 2.3GHz band, and in late 2004, WiBro Phase 1 was standardized by the TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association) of Korea. WiBro base stations will offer an aggregate data throughput of 30mbps to 50mbps and allow Internet usage within a radius of 3.1 miles. WiBro uses only licensed radio spectrum, which all but eliminates the chance of interference from other transmissions. SK Telecom and Hanaro Telecom have announced a partnership to roll out WiBro nationwide in Korea, excluding Seoul and six provincial cities, where independent networks will be installed.
Wi-Fi or WLAN (Wireless Local Area Networks) : A wireless network based on a series of specifications from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) called 802.11. Wi-Fi uses unlicensed radio frequency, mostly in the 2.4GHz band. It enables a person with a wireless-enabled computer or PDA to connect to the Internet via a wireless access point. The geographical region covered by one or several access points is called a hot spot. Wi-Fi was intended to be used for mobile devices and local-area networks, but it is now often used for Internet access outdoors. Several cities, including Philadelphia and San Francisco, plan to install citywide Wi-Fi systems for use by all citizens in each municipality. There are several types of Wi-Fi:
- 802.11a (offering transmission speeds of 24mbps to 54mbps)
- 802.11b (6mbps to 11mbps) and 802.11g (24mbps to 54 mbps)
- 802.11n (50mbps to 100mbps) is a proposed specification that will become a Wi-Fi standard once it’s finalized by the IEEE, and the Wi-Fi Alliance completes its interoperability testing.
WiMax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) : Also known as the IEEE 802.16 group of standards, defines a packet-based wireless technology that provides high-throughput broadband connections over long distances. WiMax can be used for a number of applications, including “last mile” broadband connections, hotspots and high-speed connections for businesses. The mobile standard 802.11e was just ratified by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), a standards-making body, in January 2006. WiMax is similar to Wi-Fi in concept, but it has certain features aimed at improving performance and that should permit usage over much greater distances. WiMax supports peak data speeds of about 70mbps, with average user data rates between 1mbps and 10mbps. It uses a combination of licensed and unlicensed bandwidth. Intel, along with several corporate sponsors, is working with the wireless industry to drive deployment of WiMax networks. Visit GoingWimax.com, QuantumWimax.com and Wimax.com for more information about WiMax
- Omni directional antennas : With the WiMax base station at the epicenter of the potential network , an omni directional antenna attached to this base station would provide 360 ° of coverage from the base station.
- Sector antennas: a sector antenna concentrates the signal to a 60 ° coverage area with greater and more reliable signal strength by utilizing less energy.
- Panel antennas: Panel antennas are specifically suited for point-to-point applications. The antennas are usually a one-foot square that may or may not house the WiMax radio itself, and oftentimes an Ethernet cable connects the radio and antenna to the larger network.
Wimax applications : The bandwidth and reach of WiMax make it suitable for the following potential applications: Connecting Wi-Fi hotspots with each other and to other parts of the Internet. Providing a wireless alternative to cable and DSL for last mile (last km) broadband access. Providing high-speed data and telecommunications services. Providing a diverse source of Internet connectivity as part of a business continuity plan. That is, if a business has a fixed and a wireless Internet connection, especially from unrelated providers, they are unlikely to be affected by the same service outage. Providing nomadic connectivity.
WiMax base station : In the area of wireless computer networking, a base station is a radio receiver/transmitter that serves as the hub of the local wireless network, and may also be the gateway between a wired network and the wireless network. It typically consists of a low-power transmitter and wireless router. They are made up of three main elements:
- An antenna (or several antennas) to send and receive radio signals. These are typically between 0.5 and 2.5 metres long
- A supporting structure such as a mast or building to hold the antenna(s) in the air
- Equipment to power the base station and radio equipment, which is housed in protective cabinets.
WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network) : Wireless personal area networks (WPANs) are short range wireless networks that can be used to exchange information between devices in the reach of a person and his personal space within 10-20 meters.
WirelessMAN : WirelessMAN is the official name trademarked by the IEEE 802.16 Working Group on Broadband Wireless Access Standards for its wireless metropolitan area network standard (commercially known as WiMax), which defines broadband Internet access from fixed or mobile devices via antennas. Subscriber stations communicate with base-stations that are connected to a core network. This is an alternative to fixed line networks that is simple to build and relatively inexpensive.
Learn more about Wimax ?